Alpha Taxonomy


Herbarium Curation

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Plant Collecting



Herbarium Curation


Herbarium Curation

There are several good publications and online guides to curating herbaria. Links are provided to the online guides below.

  Bridson D. & Forman L. (2004) The Herbarium Handbook. Kew Publishing.Ordering details

  Hicks, A.J. & Hicks P.M. (1978) A Selected Bibliography of Plant Collection and Herbarium Curation. Taxon, 27(1): 63-99

  CANB Collection Management Manual

  Field Techniques Manual from Missouri Botanical Garden

Collectors & Handwriting

Chirographum Historicum: This site is a collaboration between several US institutes and provides handwriting samples from many of the major collectors.

Classification Systems

There are many classification systems in use within herbaria around the world. A selection is presented here with some of the herbaria which use them


  Bentham & Hooker: K (UK), BM (UK)

Collection Data Management

A Taxonomic Information Model for Botanical Databases Website

There are a range of database systems being developed and used in herbaria around the world. A selection are listed below with the herbaria in which they are used where known.

BG-BASE Collections Management Software

  Used at E (UK), RNG (UK), NY (living collections), Belize


  Used at E (UK)

BRAHMS Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System

  Used at EA (Kenya), IAN (Brazil), Kepong (Malaysia), MAPR (Puerto Rico), L, U & WAG (Netherlands)

KE EMu Electronic Museum software

  Used at BM (UK)

Platypus software

Tracy Herbarium Management System

UC Davis Herbarium Database Management System

TDWG: Biodiversity Information Projects of the World

Virtual Herbarium Express - Herbarium Databasing Software

Herbarium Digitisation

API: The African Plant Initiative Website

Digitising and Preserving Plant Images Website

Zoomify - Zoomable web images Website

International Herbaria

Some of the major herbaria

A comprehensive listing of Herbaria can be found on the Index Herbariorum website. Some of the largest herbaria are listed here with their homepages.

  Global Virtual Herbarium Portal FTG Online

  A (Harvard)

  B (Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin) Herbarium

  BM (Natural History Museum London) Herbarium

  CANB (Australian National Herbarium, Canberra) Herbarium

  E (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh) Herbarium and Herbarium Database

  F (The Field Museum)

  G (Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Geneve) Herbarium

  GH (Gray Herbarium, Harvard) Herbarium

  H (Helsinki) Herbarium

  K (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew) Herbarium and Herbarium Database

  LE (Komarov Botanical Institute)

  M (Munich) Herbarium

  MO (Missouri Botanical Gardens) Herbarium and Herbarium Database

  MPU (Universite Montpelier)

  NYBG (New York Botanical Garden) Herbarium and Herbarium Database

  P (Museum Naturelle d'Histoire, Paris) Herbarium

  S (Swedish Museum of Natural History)

  US (Smithsonian Institution)Herbarium

  W (Natural History Museum Vienna) Herbarium

  WU (University of Vienna) Herbarium and Herbarium Database

  Z & ZT (Zurich) Herbarium


Herbarium Initiatives

Collaborative Initiatives

  Herbaria United Website

  API: The African Plant Initiative Website

  GBIF Website

  Databasing Herbaria (BSBI) Website